Visual effects and 19th century stereoscopic photography: cinematographic remediation in new media.

doutor filipe costa luz

The era­sure of ste­re­os­co­pic pho­to­graphy from 20th cen­tury media his­tory (refer­red by authors such as Jonathan Crary or Tom Gun­ning), had reper­cus­si­on­sin other fields. In the main bibli­o­graphy of visual effects his­tory we can find some his­to­ri­cal revi­ews from the dif­fe­rent eras of ste­re­os­co­pic movies (S3D) but we har­dly find refe­ren­ces to the ste­re­os­co­pic pho­to­graphy.

Com­pu­ter-gene­ra­ted effects are addres­sed as a reme­di­a­tion of ana­lo­gue tech­ni­ques in motion pic­tu­res, such as the dou­ble expo­su­res of Geor­ges Méliès, the image com­po­si­ting of Edwin S. Por­ter, the glass shots” of Nor­man O. Dawn or the model ani­ma­ti­ons of Wil­lis O’Brien, among others. Howe­ver, we can­not find rele­vant stu­dies about ste­re­os­co­pic com­po­si­ti­ons using trans­pa­ren­cies from 1860, which could be loo­ked upon as direct pre­de­ces­sors of modern spec­ta­cu­lar effects in cinema and tele­vi­sion.

The com­po­si­ting work of French tis­sues, such as Dia­ble­ries from the publisher Adolf Block (18601900), reve­als pro­ces­ses of image mani­pu­la­tion that can be found in modern visual effects movies. Nowa­days, the digi­tal work made from ren­der and matte pas­ses in film is simi­lar from Tron (Dis­ney, 1982) post-pro­duc­tion pro­ces­ses, but we intend to cla­rify that Tron reme­di­a­tes com­po­si­ting methods from Dia­ble­ries and others French tis­sues ste­re­o­cards.

In this work we intend to inves­ti­gate the reme­di­a­tion of the fee­ling of admi­ra­tion and won­der (wow effect), pre­sent in these early mani­pu­la­ti­ons, as it is in state of the art 21st cen­tury visual effects. We shall also address the impor­tance of the ste­reo appa­ra­tus in the spec­ta­tor res­ponse to visual effects, hoping to com­prehend if, how, and to what extent, does the device influ­ence the emo­ti­o­nal res­ponse and the immer­sive effect.